Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic:
Inuit, Saami, and the Indigenous Peoples of Chukotka

What is SLiCA?

 The Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic, or SLiCA, is an international joint effort of research and indigenous people to measure and understand living conditions in the Arctic. This website is intended to promote the use and understanding of SLiCA data.

Indigenous peoples and researchers from the United States, Canada, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and the indigenous peoples of the Kola Peninsula and Chukotka in Russia have contributed to SLiCA. SLiCA is a Sustainable Development initiative of the Arctic Council and is supported by the Inuit Circumpolar Council, the Saami Council, and the Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North. The aims of SLiCA are to:

bulletMeasure living conditions in a way relevant to Arctic residents
bulletDocument and compare the present state of living conditions among the indigenous peoples of the Arctic
bulletImprove the understanding of living conditions to the benefit of Arctic residents

SLICA is funded by: Nordic Council of Ministers (NMR), The Greenland Home Rule Government, The Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland (KVUG) The Barents Secretariat, Nordic Arctic Research Programme (NARP), Danish Research Council for the Social Sciences (SSF), Swedish Research Council for the Social Sciences, Ministry of the interior – Dept. of municipalities, Norway, The Joint Committee on Research Councils for Nordic Countries (NOSS), Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), National Science Foundation (NSF), Statistics Canada.

SLiCA is an International Polar Year project and a part of the Arctic Human Health Initiative.


Grants funding the U.S., Canada, Greenland,  and Chukotka components of SLiCA have been completed. Field work and data entry is currently underway in Norway and in the Kola Peninsula. Members of the international team continue to work together and with colleagues to improve our understanding of living conditions in the Arctic. For related current activities, see the Arctic Observation Network Social Indicators Study.


The International Society for Quality of Life Studies (ISQOLS) has selected two articles presenting SLICA results to include in two special editions of the Social Indicators Research Series. Both books have been published by Springer. The citations are:

Jack Kruse, Birger Poppel, Larissa Abryutina, Gerard Duhaime, Stephanie Martin, Mariekathrine Poppel, Margaret Kruse, Ed Ward, Patricia Cochran, and Virgene Hanna (2009). Survey of living conditions in the Arctic (SliCA) in: Valerie Møller, Denis Huschka and Alex C. Michalos (editors), Barometers of Quality of Life Around the Globe How are We Doing? Springer: Netherlands, Social Indicators Research Series, Vol. 33, pp. 107- 134.
See: or to borrow a copy click here.

bulletBirger Poppel and Jack Kruse (2009). The importance of a mixed cash- and harvest herding based economy to living in the Arctic – an analysis based on Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA). In: Valerie Møller and Dennis Huscka (editors): Quality of Life in the New Millenium: Advances in Quality-of-Life Studies, Theory and Research. Social Indicators Research Series. Springer Verlag, Social Indicators Research Series, Vol. 35, pp. 27-42.


For further information, see:

bulletSLiCA Results Workshop
bulletSLiCA Results
bulletProject Activities
bulletProject History
bulletCountry Activities
bulletWork in progress (project group only)

About this Website:

The contents of this worksite is for discussion purposes only. For further information, contact the site manager, Jack Kruse at or the SLiCA international project director, Birger Poppel at International coordinator: Ilisimatusarfik, University of Greenland: This website is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0120174. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.